College Information

General College information for parents, students and staff.

Style Manual

A Guide to Referencing for all Subjects – American Psychological Association [edit]

Referencing and Bibliographies

  • When writing an assignment or essay, you must indicate your reference sources.
  • In writing a research paper or essay, all sources of information used in preparation for the assignment must be listed correctly.
  • When opinions or facts are taken from the works of others, or when the works of authors are quoted, the source must be acknowledged.
  • These sources referred to in the text should be listed as REFERENCES. Those sources that are consulted but not used in the text are listed separately in the Bibliography
  • Failure to correctly acknowledge your sources of information is the equivalent of cheating, or PLAGIARISM, and students responsible for this unacceptable practice will face appropriate consequences.
These references must be cited using a consistent format. The model used here is based on the American Psychological Association (APA) system of referencing, following the American Psychological Association referencing guidelines, a copy of which can be found in the library.
 

Citing Print Resources

Print resources could be from books, encyclopaedias and dictionaries. It also includes books that are printed in electronic form only. The examples given below are based on the APA style, shows the elements which need to be included and their order of presentation.
 
Print resources
  1. Author’s last name, then initials; 2 Additional authors, then initials*; 3 Year of publication; 4 Title of book; 5 Title of series*; 6 Edition*; 7 Editor or compiler*; 8 Place of publication; and 9 Publisher * these are to be included only if applicable
 
In text referencing examples
1 author(Author’s last name, Year of publication page, number) 
 

Eg. (Hosseini, 2004, p. 26)

2 authors(Author’s last name & author’s last name, Year of publication, page number)
 

Eg. (Sadler, & Sadler, 2010, p. 16)

3 – 5 authors(Author’s last name, repeated to five authors. Year of publication, page. number)
 Initial citation for 3 authors
 

Eg. (Evans, Lipson, & Wallace, 2008, p. 343) Subsequent citations (Evans et. al., 2008, p. 296) (et. al. means ‘and others’)

6 authors(Author’s last name, et. al. Year of publication, page number)
 

Eg.(Hogendoom et. al.,, 2010, p.140)

No author(Group’s name, Year of publication, page number)
 

Eg. (American Psychological Association, 2011, p. 183)

Encyclopaedia(Article title, Year of publication, page. number)
 

Eg. (Rome, 2011, p. 323)

 
Bibliographic listing of above (if listing of reference extends to second line – indent five spaces)
1 authorAuthor’s last name, author’s initials (Year of publication) Title of book (italicised), place of publication: publisher.
 Eg. Hosseini, K. (2004). The Kite Runner. London: Bloomsbury

2 authors

Author’s last name, author’s initials (first author) & author’s last name, author’s initials (second author) Year of publication Title of book (italicised), publisher: place of publication.
 Eg. Sadler, R., & Sadler, M. (2008) Complete English Basics 2 (2nd ed.). South Yarra: Macmillan
3 - 5 authorsAuthor’s last name, author’s initials. (repeated to second last author) & author’s last name, author’s initials. Year of publication Title of book (italicised), publisher: place of publication.
 Eg. For three authors, Evans, M., Lipson, K., & Wallace, D. (2008). Essential Mathematical Methods 1 & 2 CAS. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
6 or more authorsAuthor’s last name, author’s initials. et. al. Year of publication Title of book (italicised), publisher: place of publication.
 Eg. For seven authors, Hogendoom, B., Commons, C., Jarrett, S., McKenzie, C., Moseley, C., Porter, M., and Williamson, M. (2010).Heinemann Chemistry 2 Enhanced (6th ed.). Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
No authorPublication title (edition number (if applicable)) (Year of publication) place of publication: publisher.
 Eg. Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.). (2011), Washington, DC: Author.
Edited worksAuthor’s last name, author’s initials. (first author) author’s last name, author’s initials. (second author, (eds.) Year of publicationTitle of book (italicised), edition number. place of publication: publisher.
 Eg. Ferguson, M., Salter, J., & Stallworthy, J. (eds.) (1996). The Norton Anthology of Poetry (4th edn.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company
EncyclopaediaTitle of entry, (Volume number). (Year). Place of publication: Publisher.
 Eg. Rome, (Vol. 16). (2011). Illinois: World Book
 
Periodicals
Periodicals include items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers and newsletters. Information required includes the following
1 Author’s last name; 2 Author’s initials; 3 Year of publication; 4 Title of article; 5 Title of magazine or newspaper ; 6 Volume or issue number; and 7 Page number(s)
 
In text referencing examples
No author (Article title, Year of publication, page number )
Eg. (Pies’ judgement call, 2011, p. 10)
1 author(Author’s last name Year of publication, page number) 
Eg. (Lucas, 2011, p. 11)
 
Bibliographic listing of above
No authorArticle title, (Year of publication, month date), Publication title (italicised), page number.
Eg. Pies’ judgement call, (2011, August 17), The Herald-Sun, p. 10.
1 authorAuthor’s last name, author’s initials (Year, month date) Title of article. (italicised) Newspaper name, page. number. 
Eg. Lucas, C. (2009, July 12). Tourists taken for a ride on myki. The Age, p. 1.
  
Bibliographic listing of above
No authorArticle title, (Year of publication, month date), Publication title (italicised), page number.
 

Eg. Pies’ judgement call, (2011, August 17), The Herald-Sun, p. 10.

1 authorAuthor’s last name, author’s initials (Year, month date) Title of article. Newspaper name (italicised), page. number.
 

Eg. Lucas, C. (2009, July 12). Tourists taken for a ride on myki. The Age, p. 1.

  
Citing electronic resources
Online resources could be from internet sites and articles from online databases. Here is one model, following the APA Style Guide of citing these resources, with details of what needs to be included, and the correct order.
Newspaper articles from a database or website
1 Author of article; 2 Initials of author; 3 (Year, month date of publication). 4 Title of article. 5 Retrieved Month day, year, from newspaper : 6 URL
  
In text referencing examples
Database or website 
with author
(Author’s last name, Year of publication) 
Eg. (Barlass, 2011)
Database or website without author(Title of article, Year of publication) 
Eg. (Firearms seized in Melbourne’s suburbs, 2011)
 
Bibliographic listing of above
DatabaseLester, T. (2011, August 5). Plain packaging will cause shortage, says big tobacco. Retrieved August 5, 2011, from The Age:http://www.theage.com.au/national/plain-packs-will-cause-shortage-says-big-tobacco-20110804-1idn0.html
Newspaper article 
from web
Author’s surname, author’s initials. (Year of publication, month date). Title of article’. Retrieved month day, year, from Newspaper name: (italicised) URL
Eg. Barlass, T. (2011, August 20). Cutting plastic is no longer in the bag. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from The Age:http://www.theage.com.au/environment/cutting-plastics-no-longer-in-bag-20110820-1j3f1.html
Database or website without authorTitle of document. (Year, month day). Retrieved month day, year, from newspaper name: (italicised) URL
Eg. Firearms seized in Melbourne’s suburbs. (2011, August 20). Retrieved August 20, 2011, from Herald-Sun: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/firearms-seized-in-melbourne-suburbs/story-fn7x8me2-1226118714549.
 
Citing Multimedia Resources
Multimedia sources could be from videos, CD-ROMs, DVDs or audio tapes. Here is one model, with details of what needs to be included, and the correct order of presentation.
 
CD-ROMS, Films, Television and Radio programs and Videos
Title; 2 Year of publication; 3 Format, eg., CD-ROM/Film/Television/Radio/Video; 4 Place of publication: Production Company.
In text referencing examples
DVD/CD-ROM/film/television/radio/video(Title (italicised) Date) 
Eg. (Night at the museum, 2006)
Bibliographic listing of above
DVD(Title (italicised) Date of publication, [Format]. Place of publication: Production. company.
Eg. Night at the museum, (2006). [Motion Picture]. United State of America: Twentieth Century Fox
CD-ROM(Title (italicised) Date of publication, [Format], Place of publication: Production.
Eg. Humanities alive 4 for Victorian Essential Learning Standards, 2007, [CD-ROM], Queensland: John Wiley & Sons Milton.
 

Citing Resources in your essay

You may wish to directly or indirectly refer to some of the sources you use in your research within your assignment, either as a direct quote or by paraphrasing a concept. You will need to acknowledge these sources in the body of your work, and in a list of references at the end of your essay.
 
Paraphrasing
Wherever you refer to another person’s views or words in your essay, even if you do not quote their words directly, you must acknowledge the source. The simplest way to do this is by using the APA style of citation. Using this model, you simply insert the author’s last name and the year of publication in brackets after your reference to their work.

Example: Predating the decline of communist ideology, this modern myth of a revolution that went wrong (Orwell, 1945) is a classic work of political fiction.

Full details of the work you have briefly cited here will appear in your reference list.

Example: Orwell, George (1945), Animal Farm; Penguin; London.

 
Quotations

You may wish to directly quote another writers work in support of your topic. To do this:
For a brief quotation (under 30 words), include the quotation in quotation marks, followed by the author, date and page number of the publication in brackets. The full reference is listed in the bibliography.

Example: “Lenin’s death and the succession struggle constituted a political turning-point” (Fitzpatrick, 1994, p. 110)

Long quotation (more than a sentence); indent the quotation from both the left and right margin of the document. You do not need to enclose it in quotation marks. Include the reference to the author either immediately before or after the quote.

Example: Jones (1995, p. 63) in his biography of Ned Kelly states:

“Ned Kelly was entered in the prison register as being 5ft 10ins; he was already tall for the times and not yet 16 - at least not until December. He passed the first three months of 1871 here and was released in late March with five weeks remission, to make his way home, down from the ranges and over the Oxley Flats to Greta, the gap and the Eleven Mile. His return was undoubtedly noticed by Hall or drawn to his attention by one of his toadies.”
 

Bibliographies

A Bibliography differs from a Works Cited list. A Works Cited list includes references that were used in your assignment. A Bibliography is a list of books, magazines etc. which have been read by the student, and although relevant to the topic, these articles have not been used or directly referred to. A Bibliography is listed alphabetically by the author’s last name in the same way as a Reference list.

Should you have any problems with referencing, please seek assistance from your Resource Centre staff.